Here is a short script I use to install the latest version of Android platform tools on those of my systems I do not need full blown Android SDK on:
The script requires root permissions to install prerequisite packages. It downloads and unpacks adb and fastboot binaries into $ANDROID_SDK_HOME/platform-tools/ folder (or into ~/android/platform-tools/ if $ANDROID_SDK_HOME is not defined). The folder will be added to the current $PATH. And finally the script will create a universal udev rule to take care of device permissions for all Android devices regardless of their VendorID.
The script has been tested on 32 and 64-bit versions of Ubuntu 12.04, 12.10, 13.04, 13.10 and Debian 7.0, 7.1, 7.2.